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Juan Cuadrado Ruiz

Louis Siret y Juan Cuadrado en 1920Juan Cuadrado acompanied of Louis Siret (Lomba 2007, page 21).

Cuadrado Ruiz was an archaeologist connected personally with Totana and disciple of Louis Siret. He made several raids in the surroundings of Totana where he discovered a large number of Paleolithic sites such as Cejo del Pantano, Rincón de Yéchar, Los Mortolitos, Cabecico de Lébor, Campico del Centeno, Barranco de Carboneros, Cabezo de Juan Climaco and La Parrilla (La Hoya). Besides, he takes the credit for having recovered a funerary context with 92 individuals in the burial cave of Los Blanquizares from Lébor, where he found a stone axe preserving its wooden handle, among other grave goods. In addition, he discovered the Argaric sites of Cerro del Sombrero, los Altos de la Sierra de Chíchar, Cabeza Gorda, El Morrón de Totana and Cerro de la Cueva de la Palica.

Cuadrado excavated in La Bastida between 1927 and 1928. We barely have news from his work. However, some brief information from Cuadrado himself glimpsed that the findings were abundant and varied. Among the few published data, he mentions: “…large number of burials (there is over four thousand in plain view)”and as well as “…a large number of grinding stones, oval in shape and with signs of long use; Argaric sickle teeth made of flint; stone hammers; sandstone grinders, etc.…".

It is also very interesting the interview that Cuadrado made to “el Corro". He presented this one in a publication, due to its representation of the fate of La Bastida and many other archaeological studies of that time. It speaks about the counterfeit from “El Corro” and “El Rosao”, who aided by a potter named León Vidi, put into circulation a large number of copies of archaeological objects. Furthermore, it mentions the anecdote of the failed attempt to fool Louis Siret with several replicas:

Entrevista de Juan Cuadrado a El CorroInterview by Juan Cuadrado to El Corro (Cuadrado,1945).

“We were told about a Belgian engineer, Mr. Louis Siret, who was enthusiast of these objects and lived in Herrerías, near Villaricos.

We were ensured that we could make some thousands of pesetas out of him. We prepared the job. “El Rosao” imagined and made a collection of “saints”, “warriors" or whatever it was that, like never seen before. He put together a great variety and headed to Herrerías…
How much would you say that he offered for that “treasure”?

- I do not know, a thousand pesetas?
- He said that the maximum he could pay was ten “reales”, only for the inconvenience of  to get there…
Before leaving, Bernardo proposed him to make as many replicas as he wanted for his museum, but Mr Siret only thanked him…” (Cuadrado 1945: 33).

Cuadrado dug back in La Bastida during the Civil War (1936-1939) with the aid of insurgent camp prisoners interned in the labor camp of Totana. Furthermore, he advised the team of the Seminar of the Early History of Men (Madrid) about the excavations that they conducted in La Bastida in the 40s.

Some  pieces discovered by Cuadrado became part of the collection of the Archaeological Museum of Almería, of which he was the director from 1933 until his death in 1952.
 

Photo Gallery

Replicas of Argaric objects made by “El Corro” and “El Rosao” (Cuadrado, 1945).

Replicas of Argaric objects made by “El Corro” and “El Rosao” (Cuadrado, 1945).

Tools and weapons discovered by Cuadrado between 1927-28 (Cuadrado, 1945).

Tools and weapons discovered by Cuadrado between 1927-28 (Cuadrado, 1945).

Tools and ornaments discovered by Cuadrado between 1927-28 (Cuadrado, 1945).

Tools and ornaments discovered by Cuadrado between 1927-28 (Cuadrado, 1945).

  • Replicas of Argaric objects made by “El Corro” and “El Rosao” (Cuadrado, 1945).
  • Tools and weapons discovered by Cuadrado between 1927-28 (Cuadrado, 1945).
  • Tools and ornaments discovered by Cuadrado between 1927-28 (Cuadrado, 1945).

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